التحليل الجغرافي لمشاريع تربية الدواجن
في محافظة بغداد
أطروحة مقدمة إلى
مجلس كلية التربية للبنات / جامعة بغداد
وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة دكتوراه فلسفة في التربية / الجغرافية البشرية
كوثر كوثر ناصر عباس
الأستاذ المساعد الدكتور
جنان عبد الأمير عباس
1440هـ - 2019م
Geographical Analysis for Poltury Farming Projects in Baghdad Governorate
A Dissertation submitted to
The Council of College of Education for Women / University of Baghdad as partial fulfillment Reqirements for obtaining Ph.D Degree in Education / Human Geography
Kothar Nasir Abbas
Asst. Prof. Dr. Jinan Abdul Ameer Abbas
1440 A.H. 2019 A.D.
A comprehensive field survey was carried out for (320) productive permitted poultry farming private projects distributed in eight districts of Baghdad governorate nine districts (Mahmudiya, Mada'in, Abugreeb, Tarmiya, Kadhumiya, Karkh, Adhamiya, and Risafa). (255) projects of them were Chicken Meat Producing Projects, the largest percentage of them was in Mahmudiya district with (23.9%) , and (65) projects for Producing Eggs (as food), the largest percentage of them was in Tarmiya district with (24.7%) , while there was no working projects for Chickens for hatching eggs Some natural factors played a role in the establishment and spread of these projects, such as the extrusion of the surface of the study area and the degree of decline and soil, despite salinity, which affected the cultivation of some feed crops, as well as the availability of primary and secondary transport roads that contributed to the transfer and marketing of project products, but some elements of the climate, such as temperature, solar radiation, moisture and evaporation, were unsuitable for raising and producing chickens, that forced the producers to adopt the closed-hall system and the semi-closed hall systems with (15%) and (85%) respectively and provide suitable environmental conditions for their farming such as ventilation and conditioning.
The Actual capacity was less than the Designed capacity of these projects . The actual capacity of the meat chicken projects reached (4,048,020) chickens, and of the Food Egg projects reached (2,185,210) chicken for eggs.
The highest actual capacity for chicken meat projects was in Tarmiyah district with (20.8%) , while the highest actual capacity for chicken food eggs projects was in Mada'in district with (46.6%).
The percentage of manpower in poultry farming projects were (63.8, 36.2)% for Meat Production Projects and Eggs Production Projects respectively . (99%) of manpower was men while only (1%) was woman.
The Correlation coefficient (R2) between the quantity of projects and districts area was (0.553), where the relation between the quantity of projects and districts population was reverse relation and reached (0.822).
The area of the land of the projects owners with area (1-5) Donums() is the most widespread with (46.9%), while the area allocated to projects were the most within the class of area (1-2) Donums which represented (51.6%) the largest in the district of Mahmudiyah by (21.8%) .The (Pure Property Lands) was the most common type of study area lands with (61.3%) , the largest in the district of Mahmudiyah by (20.4%).
The largest quantity of chicken meat production was (22.4%) in Tarmiya district, while largest quantity of chicken meat production was (46.7%) in Mada'in district that included the largest projects that using Cages System which represented (2.5%) of total projects systems while (97.5%) of them was using Land-based System .
In the study area, there were no governmental feed mills and incubators, with only (8) private feed mills concentrated in Mada'in district (6) and Tarmiya district (2) , while there were (13) private incubators, where the largest quantity of them was in Kadhumiya district with (5) incubators.
The achieved benefits percentage of Meat Chicken Projects reached (53.2%) of the total benefit percentage , while the achieved benefits percentage of the Eggs Projects was (46.8%) of the total benefit percentage.
Donum = 2500 m2
The greatest natural challenges facing the production of these projects were the extreme temperatures , soil salinity and lake of water resources, while in human challenges were competition of foreign products and lack of government supports, while there were many human challenges, can be arranged respectively according to their impact degree as follows : Competition of foreign products, lack of government supports, high fuel prices, high fodder prices, difficulty of disease control, lack of electricity supply, lack of good chicken veins, marketing problems, lack of experienced and skilled workers, and high transport costs.
As for the Biological challenges , Newcastle disease ND and Infectious Bronchitis (IB) disease represented the highest diseases infections with (20%) for both , while the highest diseases spreading percentage were in Winter and Summer with (32.8%) and (30.6%) respectively , beside the lack of Governmental Veterinary Health Units, which amounted only (13) units that represented by the Veterinary Hospital and its related veterinary centers , the largest quantity of them was in the district of Mahmudiya with (4) veterinary centers.
The per capita amount of chicken meat in Baghdad governorate was (4.8) kg / person / year, where a person share of eggs was (71.5) egg / person / year, which is lower than the rates recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Iraqi Ministry of Health .
The Coefficient of Variation (C.V)% and the Correlation coefficient (R2) of some indexes in the Poultry Projects were calculated. The largest C.V% was (144.0 %) with the used chicken veins , and the smallest C.V% was (60.0%) with the number of working projects. While the largest correlation (R2) was (0.985) between Meat Production and the number of halls, and the largest (R2) of Eggs Production was with the Actual Capacity with (0.982) .