تحميل كتاب نظم المعلومات الجغرافية في صنع القرار البيئي GIS for Environmental Decision-Making، استكمالا لسلسلة تعلم نظم المعلومات الجغرافية Learn GIS نقدم لكم في هذه المقالة كتاب نظم المعلومات الجغرافية في صنع القرار البيئي GIS for Environmental Decision-Making ، من تأليف Andrew Lovett and Katy Appleton.
Introduction book GIS for Environmental Decision-Making
This e-book is an encyclopedia for GIS for Environmental Decision-Making, as it contains 15 main topics, these topics are divided into many sub-topics, all in 265 pages, and these some topics are covered in the book GIS for Environmental Decision-Making:-
Participation in Decision-Making
The final section of the book focuses on the use of GIS-based techniques to facilitate public participation in decision-making processes. In the opening chapter Bishop provides an overview of developments in this area, concentrating particularly on how GIS, modelling and 3D landscape visualization techniques have gradually achieved closer integration. Ongoing work described in this chapter illustrates the possibilities of much more interactive group decision-making experiences, with ‘what if’ capabilities that extend substantially beyond traditional GIS outputs.
Integration of GIS, simulation modelling and visualization tools is also a feature of the research by Brown et al. on coastal erosion scenarios. They discuss the data processing required to produce real-time visualizations of cliff recession scenarios and the value of such displays when engaging with coastal managers or other stakeholders. However, they also highlight the manner in which model outputs had to be extrapolated to provide a sufficiently detailed basis for the visualizations and the need for future research on the quantification, representation and communication of uncertainties in the scenarios. Such issues related to uncertainty in geographical data are widely recognized as a priority for GIS research.
In addition to developing techniques to facilitate stakeholder engagement and participation it is also important to evaluate the effectiveness of such tools. The next two chapters both address this topic. Castle and Jarvis discuss the creation and use of a web-based PPGIS to rate the accessibility of buildings to mobility impaired and able bodied users on the University of Leicester campus. The results indicate the value of such an approach in compiling an evidence base for collective action and also in providing a sense of empowerment for the mobility impaired. It is emphasized, however, that further initiatives are required to translate the information and experiences associated with the PPGIS into emancipatory outcomes.
The final chapter by Herrmann and Neumeier provides further examples of web-based PPGIS, but is less concerned with technical aspects than the social implications of creating such tools. In particular, using examples from Bavaria and applying concepts from Actor-Network Theory, they discuss how the planning and introduction of web-GIS services for tourists also facilitated the creation of new stakeholder communities concerned with regional development goals. The ability of computer technology to provide a nexus around which multi-disciplinary collaboration can take place has also been noted for GIS as a whole. Indeed, given the nature of environmental problems noted earlier this may be one of the most valuable indirect contributions of GIS to improvements in decision-making.