تحميل كتاب جغرافية مدن العالم the geography of world cities
تحميل كتاب جغرافية مدن العالم the geography of world cities ، استكمالا لسلسلة تحميل كتب جغرافية pdf نقدم لكم في هذه المقالة كتاب جغرافية مدن العالم the geography of world cities من تأليف Raymond J. Dezzani and Christopher Chase-Dunn.
Introduction of the book the geography of world cities
Patterns of urbanization, Urban structure, and growth changed fundamentally in the twentieth century. At the dawn of the twenty-first century, the majority of human beings dwelled in urban expanses on six continents. This distribution of population is a redical shift form prior centuries when the majority of people lived in rural areas. Another results of twentieth century economic growth is the evolution of the world city. World Cities are a product of the globalization of economic activity that has Characterized Post-World War II Capitalism.
Globalization, as a process of economic transformation, has been defined by tilly "1995" and similarly by Giddens "1990:64" as "an increase in the geographical range of locally consequential social interactions, especially when the increase stretches a significant proportion of all interactions across international or intercontinental limits." These processes involve the movement of capital, goods, labor, information, and services across country borders usually by transnational or multinational corporations. But it is also a social process that transforms current social conditions into one where international inter-connections of economy, production, Capital flows, and perspective are commonplace.
The mechanism of globalization also processes Such as space-time compression, which compacts time to a stimulus that supports the concentration of interacting economic, political, and Communication activities within the common confines of particular Cities. World cities are created as capital and services tend to concentrate in preferred locations, often cities with comparative advantages or initial advantages in an expansive world economy. As a result, wealth and information tend to concentrate in specific urban locations, producing world cities that are more highly integrated into the global capitalist system.
World cities have existed historically in some reduced form, usually as imperial capital. For example, in the classical and medieval European realms, Rome "300 BCE – 400 CE" and Constantinople "400 CE – 1400 CE" were similar to world cities in their respective reigns of preeminence but they were rare in their time. Prior to 1500, several cities in Europe such as Bruges, Ghent, Genoa, and Venice all achieved high levels of interconnection through trade and financial exchanges that were inordinately large for the time "1200 – 1450 CE".