أصل وتكوين جزر شط العرب جنوب العراق.. رسالة دكتوراة، أوسامة قاسم خليفة
أطروحة مقدمة إلى
مجلس كلية العلوم في جامعة البصرة
وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة دكتوراه فلسفة
في علوم الأرض
أوسامة قاسم خليفة
بدر نعمة البدران
ذي القعدة 1435هـ - أيلول 2014م
Origin and evolution Of The Islands Of The
Shatt al-Arab River southern Iraq
A thesis submitted TO
The Council Of College of Science, University of Basrah As A partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of doctorate of philosophy In earth science
Usama Q. Khaleefa
Badir N. Albadran
2014 A.D 1435 H.
The purpose of this research work is to study the origin and forms of Shatt Al-Arab River Islands and attempt to understand factors such as tectonic, sedimentology and human activities influencing or impacting on forming these islands. These Islands are located at Basrah district beginning from the two islands, Sindibad and Muhamadiya located 15km north of the city center toward Shutait, Al-Dowaser and Menuhi Islands 70km south of the center. This Area is part of the Mesopotamian Plain, south of Iraq.
The Fieldwork was carried out during the two months of September/2012 and June/ 2013, that includes the measurements of longitudinal and cross-sectional profiles the riverbed using sub-bottom profile Strata-Box device. Measurements of the current velocities and flow were done using the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Picturing of the riverbed was applied by Side Scan Sonar device. The Grab Sampler was used for sampling bed load, and water sampling for collecting water samples for measuring suspended and dissolved load.
Laboratory analysis carried out for the water and sediment samples utilizing the pipette method for determining the concentration of suspended load and grain size analysis by Master Sizer Equipment, depending on Folk`s Classification.
Spatial and temporal monitoring carried out in the area using the visual interpretation for the American Satellite Landsat (1,5,8) for the period ranged between (1972-2013) to determine changes caused by human activities and natural phenomena on the Islands formation.
The tectonic factor occurs obviously on the Meno (Muhailla) Island as a result of the existence of the subsurface geological structures such as Siba, that was influenced by the subsurface strata of the river bed near the island such as the profiles measured by Stratabox equipment.
The sedimentary factor is likely to impact on the following islands Sindibad, Shamshumiyah, Rumila Um Allibabi, Shutait, Al-Dowaser and Menuhi due to the influence of Qarma and Karun rivers on the sediment load thus it developed the islands. The island growth ratios reached (5%, 34%, 32.75%, 16.76%, 8.69%) respectively.