التلوث البيئي للترب الزراعية في ناحية الجسر (قضاء المدائن) وأثره على الإنتاج الزراعي - حيدر هادي جواد العبيدي

 

 التلوث البيئي للترب الزراعية في ناحية الجسر (قضاء المدائن)
وأثره على الإنتاج الزراعي




رسالة ماجستير تقدم بها

حيدر هادي جواد العبيدي

إلى مجلس كلية التربية الأساسية – الجامعة المستنصرية

وهي جزء من متطلبات نيل شهادة الماجستير

في الجغرافية



بإشراف


أ.د. شهلة ذاكر توفيق العاني



1443هـ - 2022م








Environmental pollution of agricultural soils in Al-Jisr district (Al-Madaen district) and its impact on agricultural production


a master’s thesis submitted by

Haider Hadi Jawad Al-Obaidi

to the Council of the College of Basic Education - Al-Mustansiriya University, and it is part of the requirements for obtaining a master’s certificate in geography



Supervised by by

Prof. Shahla Zakir Tawfiq Al-Ani


1443 AH 2022 - AD










Abstract: 

   Soil is the suitable and necessary environment for plant growth, as it is a major future for many chemical residues used in society, and when these materials enter the soil, they become part of it and affect all forms of life. Al-Jisr district, which is located within the sedimentary plain range, it is one of the districts belonging to the district of Al-Madain in the province of Baghdad, which is located in the southeastern part of the capital, Baghdad. The research aims to address this by highlighting the characteristics of the natural and human sources of pollution, the study aims to know the extent to which the soil of the bridge area is exposed to pollution with heavy and toxic elements, as well as to shed light on the emergence and exacerbation of the pollution phenomenon, and then determine the concentration of pollutants studied in the field through sampling and determining the extent of their laboratory validity The thesis followed the analytical research method, which is based on the analysis of the phenomenon and the study of the factors affecting it by following the quantitative and descriptive method. And comparing it with international and Iraqi standards to show its suitability, and the natural geographical factors represented by the characteristics of the climate and water resources, as well as the geological characteristics of the mother material from which the soil was formed, interacted in highlighting the characteristics of the natural sources of pollution for agricultural soils in the study area.

   The study aims to know the variation in pollution levels in the area of the bridge and its impact on agricultural production and to determine their concentrations in the soil of the rivers and their basins, and to draw a geographical variation (seasonal and spatial) for these concentrations, as well as to search for the sources that cause pollution and analyze the role of the factors that affect that with clarification of the spatial relationship to production Agricultural crops and soil pollution in the study area, where (40) soil samples were collected for the summer and winter seasons in(10) counties for cultivated and uncultivated soils at a depth of (0-30) cm, with (20) samples at the beginning of the winter season taken on 30/1/2021 for soils of rivers and basins as well as (20) samples in the summer season on 3/7 /2021, rivers and wells water samples were also collected with (40) samples for the winter and summer seasons in (10) provinces by (20) samples for river water (Diyala, Tigris) and for the winter and summer season, and (20) samples for well water and for the summer and winter seasons and for all provinces. Where laboratory analyzes of soil  and water samples were carried out, physical (soil texture, bulk density, turbidity) and chemical (total dissolved salts T.D., electrical conductivity EC, degree of The interaction of soil pH, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides, bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates, organic matter and the exchange capacity of positive ions) as well as heavy and toxic elements to know the concentrations of these elements in soil and water in the study area, and the study showed there is a spatio-temporal variation in the distribution of pollutants Soil and water in the study area, where heavy elements rise during the summer season in the soils of the shoulders of the cultivated rivers and decrease in the winter season, while the opposite occurred in the soil of basins, where the concentrations of elements rise during the winter season and decrease The study also showed a clear spatial disparity of pollutants between the provinces, where each of the province (16/ Al-Kargouli, 15 / Jurf Al-Naddaf, 14 / Samada, 11 / Arifi, 12 / Abu Thila, and the northern part of the 10 / Tuwaitha district) exceeded most of the pollutants. Concentrations of heavy and toxic elements have global determinants, while laboratory analyzes of soil and water samples for the provinces (21 / Salman Pak North beaches, 19 / Umm Al-Ubaid, 18 / Al-Awija, 17 / Al-Khafaji, and the southern part of 10 / Tuwaitha) showed a decrease in the concentrations of most of the chemical and physical elements. in those counties. 

  The study concluded through a quantitative statistical analysis of agricultural production, which confirms the existence of a negative inverse relationship Between the amount of production (y) and most of the independent variables (xi) in the area of the bridge, as well as by evaluating the spatial appropriateness conducted by the researcher for the phenomenon studied in the area of the bridge, based on the spatial analytical method for agricultural production according to the area of each province and giving weights for the various physical and chemical elements affecting the Soil and the amount of agricultural production and its suitability for agriculture and in all provinces, where it showed a negative inverse relationship for most of the elements. forcing the citizen to Respecting the environment represented by imposing financial fines for anyone who harms the environment, and studying the importance of constructing new drainages to increase the efficiency of water drainage and the continuation of irrigation of existing drainages, since most of the drainages in the study area are neglected and closed, as well as the maintenance of the facilities of the Diyala River irrigation project and irrigation of its waterways of reeds and other plants and continuity In pumping water to deliver it to all the lands irrigated by the C river water, it is necessary to pay attention to fertilizing the soil with organic fertilizers and to follow the correct methods for collecting animal waste, as it is collected in special pits for the decomposition process to take place Fertilisers Chemicals and agricultural pesticides in a correct scientific manner and not to overuse them, treat the sewage water of the Al-Rustumiya plant scientifically in correct ways and not throw the wastes of the plant in the Diyala River until after the full treatment has been carried out. Water to study its pollution and take the necessary measures to address it, follow up the amount of water revenue in the Diyala River and know the factors affecting its decline, using techniques to remove pollutants from the soil such as biodegradation through Increasing the ability of microorganisms to naturally decompose pollutants by increasing their numbers and activities, as well as cultivating plants that have the ability to withdraw heavy elements from the soil. This method is called bioreclamation of soil.





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