التباين المكاني لخصائص الأمطار في العراق للمدة (1980 - 2012م(
رسالة قدمها إلى مجلس كلية الآدَاب في جامعة الكوفة
رزاق حسين هاشم العميدي
وهي متطلبات درجة الماجستيرٍ في الجغرافية
عبد الحسن مدفون أبو رحيل
1437هـ - 2106م
Spatial Differentiation of the Rain Characteristics in Iraq
for (1980- 2012)
A Thesis Submitted to the Council of the Faculty of Arts/ University of Kufa
Razqh Hussain Hashim Al-Amidy
as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements of the M.A Degree in Geography
Prof. Dr. Abdul-Hasen Madfoon Abu-Rehil
2016 A.D - 1437 A.H
Rain is one of the climatic phenomena which have deep relationship with all life aspects as it is the main and the first source of water on this planet, a kind of falling that represent all the images of Earth water and the most important characteristic of the climatic system that have affected by climate after temperature.
The study aims to define and reveal the main characteristics of rain in Iraq to recognize their spatial and time differentiation. The study includes (12) climatic stations distributed in Iraq to represent its Northern, Middle and Southern parts for ( 1980- 2012).
The researcher adopted the analytic descriptive method with the mathematic and statistic styles to define some of these characteristics and their spatial and time differentiation.
The study concludes a number of results summarized by the following:-
1- Rains quantities are varied spatially according to the area topography where the mountains area receives the highest rate followed by the undulating area, the middle area then the Southern area with the lowest rate.
2- Raining period is restricted within eight months starting in October and ending in May( Autumn, Summer and Spring) with different quantities.
3- Rains in Iraq are distinguished with their yearly, monthly ( and daily) waving in time and quantity, where the highest rate was in Al-Emarah station and the lowest was in al- Najaf station during the study period.
4- The geographic distribution of rain in Iraq is varied according to the rain causes where most of the heavy rains affect by the topographic relief and the light and middle rains affected by the climate of the Mediterranean sea while the Red sea and the Arab Gulf have effects on the light rains. Al- Sulaimaniyah station receives the highest rate of rains density during the study period ( 2,2 mg/ h),
while Al-Najaf and Al-Rutba received the lowest rate ( 0,7mg/h). The relation between the rain period and density is indirect.
5- The study shows the general direction of the yearly rains quantity is to decrease in all the study stations with the spatial differentiation of this decrease among the stations :- 0,12 mg in Al-Emarah station and 6,45 mg in Erbail station.
6- Studying the real value of rain and the water balance shows that all statios suffer from water deficiency :- the lowest value was 295,8- mg in Al- Sulaimaniyah station and the highest value was 1534- in Al-Najaf station.
7- Aridity characteristic had been defined for all the study station by recognizing the rain effectiveness according to Thornthoit, Dimartoon, Lanch and Blair classifications where most of the station located in the aridity and semi Aridity climate and just a few are in the semi wet climate in the Northern and East- Northern parts of Iraq.