تقييم تغير الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأرض في قضاء الخالص باستخدام المؤشرات الطيفية

 

 تقييم تغير الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأرض في قضاء الخالص باستخدام المؤشرات الطيفية 


رسالة مقدمة

إلى مجلس كلية التربية للعلوم الإنسانية / جامعة ديالى

و هي جزء من متطلبات نيل درجة الماجستير

في الجغرافية



من قبل الطالبة


شهد أحمد حسن العزاوي



بإشراف 


الأستاذ الدكتورة 

تنزيه جميد محيد 


1445هـ ـ 2023م


تقييم تغير الغطاء الأرضي واستعمالات الأرض في قضاء الخالص باستخدام المؤشرات الطيفية - شهد أحمد حسن العزاوي - رسالة ماجستير 2023م









 

Evaluation of Land Cover Change and Land Usage in Khalis District Using Spectral Indicators 


A Thesis Submitted to the Council of the College of Education for Humanities University of Diyala in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of M.A. in Geography 


By 


 Shahd Ahmed Hassan Al-Azzawi 



Supervised By 


 Prof. Tanzeeh Majeed Hameed (Ph.D.) 


2023 A.D. - 1445 A.H.








Abstract  


  In the present time, the need for the orderly usage of land and its resources is now more jumping than ever before, driven by the increase in the earth's population and rapid changes in land cover. The study of the change in land usage and the pattern of its covers is an important field in the field of research on environmental changes, and to identify and monitor these changes in a real way and try to detect them and reach a deeper understanding of the mechanism of their occurrence, especially in the last three decades. The study relied on remote sensing data for its leading role in providing old and modern data on rapidly changing geographical phenomena such as land cover and land usage, and for that, a set of spectral indicators was employed to detect changes that occurred in land cover and land usage within the area of study.  

  The results of these indicators showed the changes that occurred for the varieties of land cover and land usage between 1997 and 2021, as the indicators (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI, Infrared Plant Vegetation Index IPVI, and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index SAVI revealed a decrease in the areas covered by vegetation cover in favor of barren land and low vegetation land, while the Water Index (WI) revealed a decrease in the area of the medium-humidity and high-humidity land varieties in favor of the dry and low-moisture land varieties, while the Barren Soil Index (BSI) revealed the decline in the area of the vegetation category in favor of the barren land class, while the urban mass index revealed the increasing area of the medium-urban and densely built lands at the expense of empty and under-built lands, and the Earth's surface Thermal Status Index (LST) revealed the increasing area of the two types of surfaces with high and very high heat emissions at the expense of surfaces with medium and low heat emissions.  

  Since the results of these indicators show the changes that occurred on the land cover and land usage between the categories of one class of land cover varieties and land usage without showing the variety that turned into another variety in a later period. So, the  researcher resorted to other scientific evidence represented in detecting the change by modeling the change in land covers and land usage cartographically by comparing the classification of a previous year with the following year. Land covers and land usage were classified within the area of study based on the Anderson Classification adopted by the US Geological Survey USGS at its first and second levels. So, it was found with the help of the ERDAS Imaging program environment that there are five types of land cover and land usage, namely (water, orchards, agricultural fields, urbanization, and barren land) and between the detection of change through the ARC GID program environment 10.7, the decline in the areas of the category (water, orchards, and barren land) between 1997 and 2021 with a negative change rate of (-50.27%, -53. 28%. -83.27%) for each class respectively and in favor of the two classes (barren land and urbanization), as they recorded two percentage changes amounting to (20.76% and 20.98%) for each class respectively, which threatens the existence of environmental degradation within the area of study. 

  In order to track the changes that will occur in the land cover and land usage within the area of study until 2031, a cartographic simulation was made using the CA-MARKOV Model, and the possibility of change showed that there is a continuous decrease in the category (orchards, water, and agricultural fields) and that there is a continuous expansion towards agricultural land from urbanization and barren land, which means that there is a longitudinal list of environmental risks that will be attached to the environment of the area of study, which results in exhausting efforts to protect against these risks through solid planning and sustainable development.



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